Family Lilaceae
Genus: Polygonatum. Genus of woodland perennials from North America, Europe, and Asia. Lily family (Liliaceae). Notable for alternating leaves. Leaves are oblong with parallel veining. Flowers are six parted and hang from short stalks along the stem and near each leaf axil. Polygonatum biflorum (statewide) and Polygonatum pubescens (statewide) are native to Wisconsin.

Photograph Polygonatum species 'variety'
Description and comments
Polygonatum biflorum

Common Name: = Giant Solomon's Seal (WI). Smooth Solomon's Seal (USDA).
Native to Wisconsin, distributed statewide. Native to Eastern United States. White downward hanging flowers. Upper leaves support two flowers. Lower leaves produce 4-6 flowers. Berry turns blue in fall. Clasping leaves, hairless underside. Prefers part sun to deep shade conditions. Grows to 30-45 inches.
Grown in trial bed: Hillside.
Additional History:
7/7/2008: - Plants form a thick dense mass that tend to choke out other species. Clump expands from underground rhizomes as well as from viable seed. We removed this plant from our regular trial gardens as it proved to be too aggressive for our use. Great plant for a native hillside, but it does not play well with others in a typical garden bed.

Grower: 4/20/2000 Native to backyard (Big Bend, WI).

Polygonatum humile
(additional image)

Common Name: = Dwarf Solomon's Seal (PDN).
Exotic to Wisconsin, native to China. Attractive wide oblong leaves with white flowers held below each leaf axil. Upper leaves support one flower. Lower leaves produce two flowers. Stem upright. Roots form trailing rhizomes, easy to transplant. Grows to 8 inches. Clump forming. Clump doubles in size each year. Not agressive, just a nicely expanding planting.
Grown in trial bed: B15, B24, B26, B34

Grower: 6/23/2005 Plant Delights (Raleigh, NC).

Polygonatum inflatum
'Cheju Giant'


Common Name: = Cheju Giant Solomon's Seal (PDN).
Exotic to Wisconsin, native to Korea. Grows 24 inches. Greenish white flowers.
Grown in trial bed: B24

Additional History:
7/7/2008: - Surviving plant. Leaves show a bit of insect damage, little new growth. Clump is reducing in size.

Grower: 4/20/2007 Plant Delights (Raleigh, NC).

Polygonatum latifolium
(Synonym: Polygonatum hirtum)
(additional image)

Common Name: = Solomon's Seal.
Exotic to Wisconsin, native to eastern Europe. Dwarf form. Attractive very wide oblong leaves with white flowers held below each leaf axil. Upper leaves support two flowers. Lower leaves produce 3-4 flowers. Stem very arching. Bulb like root, easy to transplant. Grows to 12 inches.
Grown in trial bed: B15, B24, B26, B34

Grower: 4/27/2006 Plant Delights (Raleigh, NC).
Polygonatum macropodum

Common Name: = Big Footed Solomon's Seal (PDN).
Exotic to Wisconsin, native to China. Slow to spread. Grows to 24 inches.
Grown in trial bed: B26

Additional History:
7/7/2008: - Surviving plant. Leaves show a bit of insect damage, little new growth. Clump is reducing in size.

Grower: 4/27/2006 Plant Delights (Raleigh, NC).

Polygonatum odoratum
'Variegatum'

(additional image)

Common Name: = Solomon's Seal (PDN).
Exotic to Wisconsin, native to Korea. Varigated oblong leaves with white flowers held below each leaf axil. Leaf axil supports two flowers. Stem upright, arching at tip. Thick fleshy root, easy to transplant. Grows to 24 inches.
Grown in trial bed: B22, B24

Additional History:
7/7/2008: - Stable plant. Slow growing. Clump is slowly expanding.

Grower: 4/24/2000 Plant Delights (Raleigh, NC).


Family Lilaceae
Genus: Maianthemum. Genus of woodland perennials from North America, Europe, and Asia. Lily family (Liliaceae). Notable for alternating leaves. Leaves are oblong with parallel veining. Flowers are in racemes at top of plant. Maianthemum canadense (statewide), Maianthemum racemosum (statewide), Maianthemum stellatum (statewide), and Maianthemum trifolium (north and east) are native to Wisconsin.

Photograph Maianthemum species 'variety'
Description and comments
Maianthemum stellatum 'Blue Dune'
(Synonym: Smilacina stellata).
(additional image)

Common Name: = Starflower Solomon's Seal (WI). Starry False Lily Of The Valley (USDA).
Native to Wisconsin, distributed statewide. Native to Northern United States. Native to Northern and Central United States. Cultivar 'Blue Dune' is a specimen from a sand dune location in northern Indiana. White erect inflorescence. Berries green with black stripe that turns red in fall. Leaves clasp stem. Grows to 15 inches.
Grown in trial bed: B23.

Grower: 5/1/2008 Plant Delights (Raleigh, NC).


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