Krischan Photography
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Midwest Prairie Plants
We began establishing a representative Midwest prairie in our outdoor studio garden in Big Bend, Wisconsin, during 1987. The prairie project began with just a few plants in a small plot, but it has grown every year since. We now grow several dozen prairie species of self maintaining plants. Following, is our list of a few terms and then a table of important prairie plants that we grow.

Prairie: These are treeless plant communities composed of greater then 51 percent grass by biomass. Our artificial plant community is composed of far less grass and is best described as a meadow. So while technically incorrect, we commonly refer to this garden as our prairie project.

Best Available Taxonomy: Botanists have an addiction to changing scientific names. When the old name is replaced, the old name is called a synonym. Refering to a plant by its synonym isn't evil, it just isn't the best taxonomy. Occassionally there is professional disagreement between two key groups of botanists. In these cases, we use our botanical judgement to select the best available taxonomy for our table.

Endangered: Some plants are relatively rare and are classified as Endangered, Threatened, or Special Concern in Wisconsin. We note these classifications in our table. Endangered, Threatened, or Special Concern does not mean difficult to grow in a garden.

Coefficient of Conservatism: In the 1990s, Wisconsin botanists constructed a numbered rank for native species. High numbers, maximum is 10, represent native species that would be likely found in undegraded natural communities. We note those native species with rank of 6 or higher.

Habitat: Unless otherwise noted, all of the plants in the table are native prairie plants. Where the native habitat differs from that of a prairie, we note the type of habitat it is.

Exotic To Wisconsin: Plants can be native to the United States and still exotic to Wisconsin. Exotic simply means that the plant was likely introduced into Wisconsin. Occassionally there is professional disagreement on this topic. In these cases, we use our botanical judgement to select the best native range for our table. We grow prairie plants that are both native to Wisconsin and that are exotic to Wisconsin, but native to the Midwest.

The Prairie Enthusiasts: We recommend and support this conservation group. It offers member guided tour field trips to several native prairies. This is an excellent opportunity for the enthusiast to see and learn about native prairie sites. Highly recommended.
Website: http://www.theprairieenthusiasts.org.


Plant
Photograph
Genus species 'Cultivar' - OR -
Genus Hybrid 'Cultivar'
Description and grower
Allium cernuum
(additional images)

Common Name: = Nodding Onion (USDA).
Family: = Liliaceae (Lily).
Desc: Native to Wisconsin (southeast). Native to US. Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Typical height 20 inches.
Note: In our prairie, this plant is invasive and spreads rapidly. We removed it.
Grown in trial bed: P
Coefficient of Conservatism: 7.
Grower: 2000 unknown source.
Amorpha canescens
(additional images)

Common Name: = Leadplant (USDA).
Family: = Fabaceae (Pea).
Desc: Native to Wisconsin (south and central). Native to Central US. Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Typical height 30 inches. Woody shrub with purple flowers.
Grown in trial bed: P
Coefficient of Conservatism: 7.
Grower: 4/20/2007 Prairie Nursery (Westfield, WI).
Anemone patens variety multifida
(Synonym: Anemone patens variety wolfgangiana)
(Synonym: Pulsatilla patens subspecies multifida)
(additional images)

Common Name: = American Pasqueflower (WI), Cutleaf Anemone (USDA).
Family: = Ranunculaceae (Buttercup).
Desc: Native to Wisconsin (south and west). Native to western US. Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Leaves palmate, unfurl beneath flower. Flowers large white, often tinged with light purple, 6-parted sometimes 5 or 7-parted. Blooms April. Typical height 12 inches.
Note: Controversy over taxonomy. USDA calls plant Pulsatilla patens subspecies multifida. University of Wisconsin Herbarium calls the plant Anemone patens variety multifida.
Grown in trial bed: P
Coefficient of Conservatism: 7.
Grower: 9/30/2009 Prairie Moon Nursery (Winona, MN).
Antennaria neglecta
(additional images)

Common Name: = Field Pussytoes (USDA).
Family: = Asteraceae (Aster).
Desc: Native to Wisconsin (statewide). Native to northcentral US. Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Leaves fuzzy with white hairs, alternate. Inflorescence dense cluster at tip, flowers whitish pink, disc without rays. Blooms April. Typical height 12 inches.
Grown in trial bed: P
Grower: 9/30/2009 Prairie Moon Nursery (Winona, MN).
Asclepias incarnata
(additional images)

Common Name: = Swamp Milkweed (USDA).
Family: = Asclepiadaceae (Milkweed).
Desc: Native to Wisconsin (statewide). Native to US (except west coast). Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Typical height 36 inches.
Note: In our prairie, this plant died out. Our soil conditions are probably too dry.
Grown in trial bed: P
Asclepias sullivantii
(additional images)

Common Name: = Prairie Milkweed (USDA).
Family: = Asclepiadaceae (Milkweed).
Desc: Native to Wisconsin (southeast). Native to Central US. Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Typical height 36 inches. Clump forming with pink flower.
Grown in trial bed: P
Coefficient of Conservatism: 8.
Threatened in Wisconsin.
Grower: 4/20/2007 Prairie Nursery (Westfield, WI).
Grower: 9/21/2007 Prairie Nursery (Westfield, WI).
Asclepias syriaca
(additional images)

Common Name: = Common Milkweed (USDA).
Family: = Asclepiadaceae (Milkweed).
Desc: Native to Wisconsin (statewide). Native to US (except west coast). Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Typical height 36 inches.
Grown in trial bed: P
Asclepias tuberosa
(additional images)

Common Name: = Butterfly Milkweed (USDA).
Family: = Asclepiadaceae (Milkweed).
Desc: Native to Wisconsin (statewide). Native to US (except northwest). Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Typical height 12 inches.
Coefficient of Conservatism: 6.
Grown in trial bed: P
Future image Asclepias viridiflora

Common Name: = Green Comet Milkweed (USDA).
Family: = Asclepiadaceae (Milkweed).
Desc: Native to Wisconsin (south). Native to east and central US. Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Leaves lance shaped, hairy beneath. Flowers green, drooping umbel, comet like. Blooms April. Typical height 24 inches.
Coefficient of Conservatism: 9.
Grown in trial bed: P
Grower: 9/30/2009 Prairie Moon Nursery (Winona, MN).
Aster novae-angliae
(additional images)

Common Name: = New England Aster (USDA).
Family: = Asteraceae (Aster).
Desc: Native to Wisconsin (statewide). Native to US (except gulf states). Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Typical height 30 inches.
Grown in trial bed: P
Baptisia australis
(additional images)

Common Name: = Blue Wild Indigo (USDA).
Family: = Fabaceae (Pea).
Desc: Exotic to Wisconsin. Native to Illinois (Chicago area) and Eastern US. Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Typical height 24 inches.
Grown in trial bed: P
Besseya bullii
(Synonym: Wulfenia bullii)
(additional images)

Common Name: = Bull's Coraldrops (USDA), Kitten's Tails (WI).
Family: = Scrophulariaceae (Turtlehead).
Desc: Native to Wisconsin (southeast). Native to northcentral US. Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Leaves for basal rosette. Inflorescence dense spike, flowers small yellow, 5-parted. Blooms May. Typical height 12 inches.
Grown in trial bed: P
Coefficient of Conservatism: 9.
Threatened in Wisconsin.
Grower: 9/30/2009 Prairie Moon Nursery (Winona, MN).
Ceanothus americanus
(additional images)

Common Name: = New Jersey Tea (USDA).
Family: = Rhamnaceae (Buckthorn).
Desc: Native to Wisconsin (statewide). Native to Eastern US. Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Typical height 30 inches. Woody shrub with white flowers.
Grown in trial bed: P
Coefficient of Conservatism: 9.
Grower: 4/20/2007 Prairie Nursery (Westfield, WI).
Grower: 9/21/2007 Prairie Nursery (Westfield, WI).
Future image Ceanothus herbaceus
(Synonym: Ceanothus ovatus)

Common Name: = Jersey Tea (USDA).
Family: = Rhamnaceae (Buckthorn).
Desc: Native to Wisconsin (southeast). Native to central US. Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Leaves 2 inches long, oblong. Inflorescence round cluster, flowers white, 5-parted. Blooms May. Typical height 30 inches.
Grown in trial bed: P
Coefficient of Conservatism: 8.
Grower: 9/30/2009 Prairie Moon Nursery (Winona, MN).
Chelone glabra

Common Name: = White Turtlehead (USDA).
Family: = Scrophulariaceae (Turtlehead).
Desc: Native to Wisconsin (statewide). Native to Eastern US. Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Typical height 30 inches.
Grown in trial bed: P
Habitat: Wet meadow.
Coefficient of Conservatism: 7.
Grower: 9/21/2007 Prairie Nursery (Westfield, WI).
Coreopsis tripteris
(additional images)

Common Name: = Tall Tickseed (USDA).
Family: = Asteraceae (Aster).
Desc: Native to Wisconsin (Greenbay). Native to Eastern US. Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Typical height 72 inches.
Grown in trial bed: P
Future image Dalea villosa
(Synonym: Petalostemum villosa)

Common Name: = Silky Prairie Clover (USDA).
Family: = Fabaceae (Pea).
Desc: Native to Wisconsin (west). Native to west and central US. Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Leaves narrow, pinnate, 13 leaflets (often 11 or 15). Inflorescence 3 inch long dense spike, flowers lilac to pale purple. Blooms July. Typical height 12 inches.
Grown in trial bed: P
Coefficient of Conservatism: 8.
Special Concern in Wisconsin.
Grower: 9/30/2009 Prairie Moon Nursery (Winona, MN).
Dalea purpurea
(additional images)

Common Name: = Purple Prairie Clover (USDA).
Family: = Fabaceae (Pea).
Desc: Native to Wisconsin (except northwest). Native to Central US. Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Typical height 18 inches.
Grown in trial bed: P
Coefficient of Conservatism: 7.
Grower: 5/30/2005 Prairie Nursery (Westfield, WI).
Desmanthus illinoensis
(additional images)

Common Name: = Illinois Bundleflower (USDA).
Family: = Fabaceae (Pea).
Desc: Exotic to Wisconsin. Native to Central and Eastern US. Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Typical height 30 inches.
Note: Controversy over native range. USDA considers the plant as native to Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Herbarium considers the plant exotic to Wisconsin.
Note: Controversy over taxonomy. USDA calls the plant family Fabaceae. University of Wisconsin Herbarium calls the plant family Mimosaceae.
Grown in trial bed: P
Grower: 6/1/2008.
Dodecatheon amethystinum
(additional images)

Common Name: = Jeweled Shootingstar (USDA).
Family: = Primulaceae (Primrose).
Desc: Native to Wisconsin (southwest). Native to northcentral US. Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Leaves basal. Flowers dark pink to maroon, 5-parted, resemble shooting stars. Blooms April. Typical height 24 inches.
Special Concern in Wisconsin.
Coefficient of Conservatism: 8.
Grown in trial bed: P
Grower: 9/30/2009 Prairie Moon Nursery (Winona, MN).
Dodecatheon meadia
(additional images)

Common Name: = Eastern Shooting Star (WI). Pride Of Ohio (USDA).
Family: = Primulaceae (Primrose).
Desc: Native to Wisconsin (south). Native to Eastern US. Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Flowers white. Typical height 18 inches.
Grown in trial bed: P
Coefficient of Conservatism: 7.
Echinacea pallida
(additional images)

Common Name: = Pale Purple Coneflower (USDA).
Family: = Asteraceae (Aster).
Desc: Native to Wisconsin (south). Native to Eastern US. Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Typical height 36 inches.
Grown in trial bed: P
Coefficient of Conservatism: 7.
Threatened in Wisconsin.
Echinacea paradoxa
(additional images)

Common Name: = Bush's Yellow Coneflower (USDA).
Family: = Asteraceae (Aster).
Desc: Exotic to Wisconsin. Native Southcentral US (Missouri to Texas). Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Typical height 36 inches.
Grown in trial bed: P
Echinacea purpurea
(additional images)

Common Name: = Eastern Purple Coneflower (USDA).
Family: = Asteraceae (Aster).
Desc: Exotic to Wisconsin. Native to Illinois (statewide) and Eastern US. Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Typical height 36 inches.
Note: Controversy over native range. USDA considers the plant as native to Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Herbarium considers the plant exotic to Wisconsin.
Grown in trial bed: P
Echinacea tennesseensis

Common Name: = Tennessee Purple Coneflower (USDA).
Family: = Asteraceae (Aster).
Desc: Exotic to Wisconsin. Native to Tennessee. Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Leaves toothed. Flower rays dark pink, curled foward. Blooms July. Typical height 18 inches.
Endangered in United States.
Grown in trial bed: P
Grower: 9/30/2009 Prairie Moon Nursery (Winona, MN).
Eryngium yuccafolium
(additional images)

Common Name: = Rattlesnakemaster (WI). Button Eryngo (USDA).
Family: = Apiaceae (Parsley).
Desc: Native to Wisconsin. Native to Eastern US. Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Leaves narrow with sharp point, spiny, yucca like. Inflorescence green rounded ball, flowers tiny, white, 5-parted. Blooms July. Typical height 30 inches.
Coefficient of Conservatism: 8.
Grown in trial bed: P
Grower: 9/21/2007 Shady Acres (New Berlin, WI).
Grower#2: 9/30/2009 Prairie Moon Nursery (Winona, MN).
Eupatorium maculatum
(Synonym: Eupatorium maculatus)
(additional images)

Common Name: = Spotted Joe-Pye-Weed (USDA).
Family: = Asteraceae (Aster).
Desc: Native to Wisconsin (statewide). Native to Northcentral US. Leaves in whorls of five. Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Typical height 48 inches.
Note: Controversy over taxonomy. USDA calls plant Eupatorium maculatus. University of Wisconsin Herbarium calls the plant Eupatorium maculatum.
Grown in trial bed: P
Eupatorium perfoliatum
(additional images)

Common Name: = Common Boneset (USDA).
Family: = Asteraceae (Aster).
Desc: Native to Wisconsin (statewide). Native to Central and Eastern US. Leaves surrounding stem. Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Typical height 48 inches.
Coefficient of Conservatism: 6.
Grown in trial bed: P
Grower: 9/21/2007 Shady Acres (New Berlin, WI).
Euphorbia corollata

Common Name: = Flowering Spurge (USDA).
Family: = Euphorbiaceae (Spurge).
Desc: Native to Wisconsin (statewide). Native to Central and Eastern US. Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Typical height 18 inches.
Coefficient of Conservatism: 6.
Grown in trial bed: P.
Grower: 1995 Collected (Rome, WI).
Filipendula rubra
(additional images)

Common Name: = Queen Of The Prairie (USDA).
Family: = Rosaceae (Rose).
Desc: Exotic to Wisconsin. Native to Northeastern US. Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Typical height 48 inches.
Note: Controversy over native range. USDA considers the plant native to Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Herbarium considers the plant exotic to Wisconsin. Since we are UW Botany graduates, we side with UW.
Grown in trial bed: P
Gentiana alba
(Synonym: Gentiana flavida)
(additional images)

Common Name: = Creme Gentian (WI).
Family: = Gentiananaceae (Gentian).
Desc: Native to Wisconsin (south). Native to northcentral US. Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Leaves opposite, stalkless. Inflorescence cluster at tip, flowers creme, 5-parted. Blooms August. Typical height 18 inches.
Grown in trial bed: P
Coefficient of Conservatism: 7.
Threatened in Wisconsin.
Grower: 9/30/2009 Prairie Moon Nursery (Winona, MN).
Gentiana andrewsii
(additional images)

Common Name: = Closed Bottle Gentian (USDA).
Family: = Gentiananaceae (Gentian).
Desc: Native to Wisconsin (statewide). Native to Northcentral and Northeastern US. Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Typical height 18 inches.
Coefficient of Conservatism: 6.
Grown in trial bed: P.
Grower: 9/21/2007 Prairie Nursery (Westfield, WI).
Geum triflorum
(additional images)

Common Name: = Prairie Smoke (WI). Old Man's Whiskers (USDA).
Family: = Rosaceae (Rose).
Desc: Native to Wisconsin (except north). Native to Western US. Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Typical height 12 inches.
Grown in trial bed: P
Coefficient of Conservatism: 7.
Helianthus grosseserratus
(additional images)

Common Name: = Sawtooth Sunflower (USDA).
Family: = Asteraceae (Aster).
Desc: Native to Wisconsin (south). Native to Central and Eastern US. Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Typical height 60 inches.
Key: Stem usually green and hairless, stalks of heads more than 4 inches long, lower leaf surface with short white hairs = (H. grosseserratus); stem usually purple with spreading hairs, stalks of heads less than 4 inches long, lower leaf surface with long hairs = (H. giganteus).
Grown in trial bed: P.
Grower: 2000 naturally occuring.
Heliopsis helianthoides
(additional images)

Common Name: = Smooth Oxeye (USDA).
Family: = Asteraceae (Aster).
Desc: Native to Wisconsin (statewide). Native to Central and Eastern US. Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Typical height 30 inches.
Grown in trial bed: P.
Grower: 9/21/2007 Prairie Nursery (Westfield, WI).
Iris lacustris
(additional images)

Common Name: = Dwarf Lake Iris (USDA).
Family: = Iridaceae (Iris).
Desc: Native to Wisconsin (east). Native to Wisconsin and Michigan. Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Leaves linear. Flowers blue to lilac, 2 inches wide. 3 blue petals with yellow, white, and dark blue spotted throat, 3 blue sepals. Blooms May. Typical height 3 inches.
Grown in trial bed: Pond (pond sand)
Coefficient of Conservatism: 9.
Threatened in Wisconsin and Threatened in US.
Habitat: Lake Michigan shoreline.
Grower: 9/30/2009 Prairie Moon Nursery (Winona, MN).
Future image Liatris aspera
(additional images)
(taxonomy key)

Common Name: = Tall Blazing Star (USDA).
Family: = Asteraceae (Aster).
Desc: Native to Wisconsin (statewide). Native to Eastern US. Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Typical height 18 inches.
Grown in trial bed: P
Grower: 9/30/2009 Prairie Moon Nursery (Winona, MN).
Liatris ligulistylis
(additional images)
(taxonomy key)

Common Name: = Rocky Mountain Blazing Star (USDA).
Family: = Asteraceae (Aster).
Desc: Native to Wisconsin (statewide). Native to Northcentral US. Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Typical height 18 inches.
Grown in trial bed: P
Coefficient of Conservatism: 7.
Grower: 4/20/2007 Prairie Nursery (Westfield, WI).
Grower#2: 9/30/2009 Prairie Moon Nursery (Winona, MN).
Liatris pycnostachya
(additional images)
(taxonomy key)

Common Name: = Blazing Star (USDA).
Family: = Asteraceae (Aster).
Desc: Native to Wisconsin (south). Native to Northeastern US (Pennslyvania to Maine). Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Typical height 20 inches.
Grown in trial bed: P
Grower: 6/15/2005 Prairie Nursery (Westfield, WI)?
Grower: 9/21/2007 Prairie Nursery (Westfield, WI)?
Liatris scariosa
(Synonym: Liatris borealis)
(additional images)
(taxonomy key)

Common Name: = New England Blazing Star (USDA).
Family: = Asteraceae (Aster).
Desc: Exotic to Wisconsin. Native to Northeastern US (Pennslyvania to Maine). Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Typical height 36 inches.
Grown in trial bed: P
Grower: 6/15/2005 Prairie Nursery (Westfield, WI).
Grower: 9/21/2007 Prairie Nursery (Westfield, WI).
Liatris spicata
(additional images)
(taxonomy key)

Common Name: = Dense Blazing Star (USDA), Dense Gay Feather (WI).
Family: = Asteraceae (Aster).
Desc: Native to Wisconsin (southeast corner). Native to Eastern US. Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Typical height 18 inches.
Grown in trial bed: P
Coefficient of Conservatism: 8.
Special Concern in Wisconsin.
Grower: 2000.
Liatris squarrosa
(additional images)
(taxonomy key)

Common Name: = Scaly Blazing Star (USDA).
Family: = Asteraceae (Aster).
Desc: Exotic to Wisconsin. Native to Eastern US. Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Typical height 18 inches.
Grown in trial bed: P
Grower: 5/30/2005 Prairie Nursery (Westfield, WI). Grower#2: 9/30/2009 Prairie Moon Nursery (Winona, MN).
Lobelia cardinalis
(additional images)

Common Name: = Cardinal Flower (USDA).
Family: = Lobeliaceae (Lobelia).
Desc: Native to Wisconsin. Native to Eastern US. Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Red flower in August. Typical height 24 inches.
Grown in trial bed: P
Grower: 6/1/2008 seed.
Lupinus perennis

Common Name: = Sundial Lupine (USDA).
Family: = Fabaceae (Pea).
Desc: Native to Wisconsin (statewide). Native to Eastern US. Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Typical height 18 inches.
Grown in trial bed: P
Coefficient of Conservatism: 6.
Grower: 4/20/2007 Prairie Nursery (Westfield, WI).
Grower: 9/21/2007 Prairie Nursery (Westfield, WI).
Monarda fistulosa
(additional images)

Common Name: = Wild Bergamot (USDA).
Family: = Lamiaceae (Mint).
Desc: Native to Wisconsin (statewide). Native to US. Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Typical height 36 inches.
Grown in trial bed: P
Napaea dioica
(additional images)

Common Name: = Glademallow (USDA).
Family: = Malvaceae (Mallow).
Desc: Native to Wisconsin (southwest). Native to Northeast US. Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Typical height 48 inches.
Grown in trial bed: P
Habitat: Moist woods.
Coefficient of Conservatism: 7.
Special Concern in Wisconsin.
Grower: 4/20/2007 Prairie Nursery (Westfield, WI).
Oenothera biennis
(additional images)

Common Name: = Common Evening Primrose (USDA), Bastard Evening Primrose (WI).
Family: = Onagraceae (Primrose).
Desc: Native to Wisconsin (statewide). Native to US. Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Typical height 36 inches.
Grown in trial bed: P
Grower: 2000.
Parthenium integrifolium
(additional images)

Common Name: = Wild Quinine (USDA), American Feverfew (WI).
Family: = Asteraceae (Aster).
Desc: Native to Wisconsin (south). Native to Eastern US. Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Typical height 30 inches. White flowers.
Grown in trial bed: P
Coefficient of Conservatism: 8.
Threatened in Wisconsin.
Grower: 4/20/2007 Prairie Nursery (Westfield, WI).
Ratibida columnifera

Common Name: = Upright Prairie Coneflower (USDA).
Family: = Asteraceae (Aster).
Desc: Exotic to Wisconsin. Native to US. Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Typical height 36 inches.
Note: Controversy over native range. USDA considers the plant as native to Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Herbarium considers the plant exotic to Wisconsin.
Grown in trial bed: P
Ratibida pinnata
(additional images)

Common Name: = Pinnate Prairie Coneflower (USDA).
Family: = Asteraceae (Aster).
Desc: Native to Wisconsin (statewide). Native to Eastern US. Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Typical height 36 inches.
Grown in trial bed: P
Rudbeckia hirta

Common Name: = Blackeyed Susan (USDA).
Family: = Asteraceae (Aster).
Desc: Native to Wisconsin (statewide). Native to US. Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Typical height 24 inches.
Grown in trial bed: P
Rudbeckia triloba
(additional images)

Common Name: = Browneyed Susan (USDA).
Family: = Asteraceae (Aster).
Desc: Native to Wisconsin (central and south). Native to Eastern US. Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Typical height 24 inches.
Habitat: Woods.
Grown in trial bed: P
Ruellia humilis
(additional images)

Common Name: = Fringeleaf Wild Petunia (USDA).
Family: = Acanthaceae (Wild Petuna).
Desc: Native to Wisconsin (southwest). Native to Eastern US. Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Typical height 18 inches.
Grown in trial bed: P
Coefficient of Conservatism: 6.
Endangered in Wisconsin.
Senna hebecarpa
(Synonym: Cassia hebecarpa)
(additional images)

Common Name: = American Senna (USDA).
Family: = Fabaceae (Pea) USDA.
Family: = Caesalpiniaceae (Redbud) WI.
Desc: Native to Wisconsin (southwest). Native to Eastern US. Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Typical height 48 inches.
Note: No longer found in our prairie.
Grown in trial bed: P
Habitat: Moist woods.
Coefficient of Conservatism: 6.
Grower: 6/11/2010 Johnson Nursery (Menomomee Falls, WI).
Grower: 6/12/2011 Johnson Nursery (Menomomee Falls, WI).
Silene regia
(additional images)

Common Name: = Royal Catchfly (USDA).
Family: = Caryophyllaceae (Pink).
Desc: Native to Wisconsin (southwest). Native to Southcentral US. Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Typical height 36 inches.
Grown in trial bed: P
Habitat: Moist woods??
Grower: 4/20/2007 Prairie Nursery (Westfield, WI).
Future image Silene virginica

Common Name: = Fire Pink (USDA).
Family: = Caryophyllaceae (Pink).
Desc: Native to Wisconsin (southwest). Native to Eastern US. Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Typical height 36 inches.
Grown in trial bed: P
Coefficient of Conservatism: 10.
Habitat: Moist woods.
Endangered in Wisconsin.
Grower: 4/20/2007 Prairie Nursery (Westfield, WI).
Silphium integrifolium
(additional images)

Common Name: = Wholeleaf Rosinweed (USDA).
Family: = Asteraceae (Aster).
Desc: Native to Wisconsin (south). Native to Central US. Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Typical height 60 inches.
Grown in trial bed: P
Coefficient of Conservatism: 6.
Silphium laciniatum
(additional images)

Common Name: = Compassplant (USDA).
Family: = Asteraceae (Aster).
Desc: Native to Wisconsin. Native to Central US. Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Typical height 60 inches.
Grown in trial bed: P
Coefficient of Conservatism: 8.
Silphium perfoliatum
(additional images)

Common Name: = Cup Plant (USDA).
Family: = Asteraceae (Aster).
Desc: Native to Wisconsin (statewide). Native to Eastern US. Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Typical height 60 inches.
Grown in trial bed: P
Silphium terebinthinaceum
(additional images)

Common Name: = Prairie Dock (WI). Prairie Rosenweed (USDA).
Family: = Asteraceae (Aster).
Desc: Native to Wisconsin (southeast). Native to Eastern US. Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Typical height 60 inches.
Grown in trial bed: P
Coefficient of Conservatism: 7.
Solidago caesia
(additional images)

Common Name: = Wreath Goldenrod (USDA).
Family: = Asteraceae (Aster).
Desc: Native to Wisconsin (statewide). Native to Eastern US. Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Typical height 36 inches.
Grown in trial bed: P
Coefficient of Conservatism: 8.
Habitat: Woods.
Endangered in Wisconsin.
Grower: 4/20/2007 Prairie Nursery (Westfield, WI).
Solidago canadensis
(additional images)

Common Name: = Canada Goldenrod (USDA).
Family: = Asteraceae (Aster).
Desc: Native to Wisconsin (statewide). Native to US (except southeast). Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Typical height 36 inches.
Grown in trial bed: P
Solidago ohioensis
(Synonym: Oligoneuron ohioense)
(additional images)

Common Name: = Ohio Goldenrod (USDA).
Family: = Asteraceae (Aster).
Desc: Native to Wisconsin (southeast). Native to Upper Midwest US. Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Typical height 36 inches.
Note: Controversy over taxonomy. University of Wisconsin Herbarium calls the plant Solidago ohioensis. USDA calls plant Oligoneuron ohioense.
Grown in trial bed: P
Coefficient of Conservatism: 9.
Special Concern in Wisconsin.
Grower: 4/20/2007 Prairie Nursery (Westfield, WI).
Solidago rigida
(Synonym: Oligoneuron rigidum)
(additional images)

Common Name: = Stiff Goldenrod (USDA).
Family: = Asteraceae (Aster).
Desc: Native to Wisconsin (except northeast). Native to Central US. Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Typical height 36 inches.
Note: Controversy over taxonomy. USDA calls plant Oligoneuron rigidum. University of Wisconsin Herbarium calls the plant Solidago rigida.
Grown in trial bed: P
Solidago speciosa
(additional images)

Common Name: = Showy Goldenrod (USDA).
Family: = Asteraceae (Aster).
Desc: Native to Wisconsin (statewide). Native to Eastern US. Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Typical height 36 inches.
Grown in trial bed: P
Grower: 4/20/2007 Prairie Nursery (Westfield, WI).
Tradescantia ohiensis
(additional images)

Common Name: = Common Spiderwort (WI). Bluejacket (USDA).
Family: = Commelinaceae (Spiderwort).
Desc: Native to Wisconsin (statewide). Native to Eastern US. Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Typical height 30 inches.
Grown in trial bed: P
Verbena stricta
(additional images)

Common Name: = Hoary Verbena (USDA).
Family: = Verbenaceae (Verbena).
Desc: Native to Wisconsin (statewide, except extreme north). Native to entire US. Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Typical height 24 inches.
Grown in trial bed: P
Grower: 6/12/2011 Johnson Nursery (Menomomee Falls, WI).
Vernonia fasciculata
(additional images)

Common Name: = Prairie Ironweed (USDA).
Family: = Asteraceae (Aster).
Desc: Native to Wisconsin (south and west). Native to Northcentral US. Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Typical height 48 inches.
Grown in trial bed: P
Veronicastrum virginicum
(additional images)

Common Name: = Culver's Root (USDA).
Family: = Scrophulariaceae (Turtlehead).
Desc: Native to Wisconsin (statewide). Native to Eastern US. Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Typical height 48 inches.
Grown in trial bed: P
Coefficient of Conservatism: 6.
Future image Zizia aptera

Common Name: = Heartleaved Golden Alexander (WI). Meadow Zizia (USDA).
Family: = Apiaceae (Carot).
Desc: Native to Wisconsin (south and west). Native to US (except southwest). Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Typical height 36 inches.
Note: No longer found in our prairie.
Grown in trial bed: P
Coefficient of Conservatism: 9.
Zizia aurea
(additional images)

Common Name: = Common Golden Alexander (WI). Golden Zizia (USDA).
Family: = Apiaceae (Carot).
Desc: Native to Wisconsin (statewide). Native to Eastern US. Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Typical height 36 inches.
Grown in trial bed: P
Coefficient of Conservatism: 7.


Grass
Photograph
Genus species 'Cultivar' - OR -
Genus Hybrid 'Cultivar'
Description and grower
Andropogon gerardii
(additional images)

Common Name: = Big Bluestem (USDA).
Family: = Poaceae (Grass).
Desc: Native to Wisconsin (statewide). Native to US (except westcoast). Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Clumb forming, upright. Blooms in August, flower resembles three parted fingers or a turkey foot. Typical height 4-5 feet.
Grown in trial bed: P
Bouteloua curtipendula
(additional images)

Common Name: = Sideoats Grama (USDA).
Family: = Poaceae (Grass).
Desc: Native to Wisconsin (south). Native to entire US. Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Clumb forming, upright. Typical height 2-3 feet.
Grown in trial bed: P
Coefficient of Conservatism: 6.
Grower: 9/21/2007 Prairie Nursery (Westfield, WI).
Chasmanthium latifolium
(Synonym: Uniola latifolium)
(additional images)

Common Name: = Indian Woodoats (USDA).
Family: = Poaceae (Grass).
Desc: Exotic to Wisconsin. Native to Eastern US. Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Clumb forming, upright. Spreads form seeds, moderately aggressive. Leaves turn copper brown after frost. Blooms in August, flower flat and drooping. Typical height 1-2 feet.
Note: In our prairie, this plant is invasive and spreads rapidly. We removed it.
Note: Controversy over native range. USDA considers this plant native to Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Herbarium considers plant is exotic to Wisconsin.
Grown in trial bed: P
Elymus canadensis
(additional images)

Common Name: = Canada Wildrye (USDA).
Family: = Poaceae (Grass).
Desc: Native to Wisconsin (statewide). Native to entire US (except Southeast). Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Clumb forming, upright. Typical height 3-4 feet.
Grown in trial bed: P
Grower: 9/21/2007 Prairie Nursery (Westfield, WI).
Schizachyrium scoparium
(additional images)

Common Name: = Little Bluestem (USDA).
Family: = Poaceae (Grass).
Desc: Native to Wisconsin (statewide). Native to US. Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Leaves turn bronze orange in September with purplish flowers. Typical height 3-4 feet.
Grown in trial bed: P
Sorghastrum nutans
(additional images)

Common Name: = Indiangrass (USDA).
Family: = Poaceae (Grass).
Desc: Native to Wisconsin (statewide). Native to US (except westcoast). Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Clump forming, upright. Leaves turn orange yellow in September. Feathery verticlal flower blooms in August. Typical height 3-4 feet.
Grown in trial bed: P
Sporobolus heterolepis
(additional images)

Common Name: = Prairie Dropseed (USDA).
Family: = Poaceae (Grass).
Desc: Native to Wisconsin (south and west). Native to Northcentral US. Grown in full sun, late afternoon shade, heavy clay soil, and on a gently sloping southeast facing hillside. Clump forming. Leaves turn golden orange in September. Flower pink and brown with slight fragrance. Typical height 2-3 feet.
Grown in trial bed: P
Coefficient of Conservatism: 10.


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Prairie Plants

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