|Genus: Trillium. Genus of three dozen species of woodland perennials from North America (Zone 5). Notable for early and showy spring flower. Many are native to Wisconsin.|
|Photograph||Trillium species 'variety'
Description and comments
Flowers hang below leaves.
White flowers with distinctive purple stamens. Flowers frequently hang below leaves.
(Purple Toadshade Trillium)
Flower sessile. Erect maroon petals. Maroon veined green sepals, mostly erect. Lightly mottled leaves.
(Great White Trillium)
White showy flowers. Flowers held upright with wavy petals frequently curled back.
Trillium grandiflorum forma polymerum|
Yellow petals, sessile flower, and mottled leaves.
Maroon to dark red flowers. Small flower borne above leaves with no stalk.
Flower sessile. Anthers extrose (facing away from ovary). Twisted maroon petals. Maroon stamens and maroon to green sepals.
Maroon flowers. Flowers borne above leaves with no stalk (sessile). Distinctive mottling on leaves.
Maroon petals, pedicel flower that hangs below leaves.
Cross between species.
Trillium Identification Key – Common Species|
1a. Flowers are held on stems (flower "stems" are technically called a pedicel). Leaves are mottled. Go to step 2.
1b. Stemless flowers are just above leaves (botanically described as sessile). Leaves are uniformly green. Go to step 5.
2a. Petals white, or green-white. Go to step 3.
2b. Petals red or maroon. Go to step 4.
3a. Large white petals, 2-3 inches long. Flower held strongly erect, above leaves. You have Trillium grandiflorum.
Note: Mycoplasma infected flowers of Trillium grandiflorum form showy green-white petals.
3b. Small white petals, less than 1 inch long. Flower nodding beneath leaves. Anther sac about equal to the size of the filament. You have Trillium cernuum.
4a. Flower held erect, above leaves. You have Trillium erectum.
4b. Flower nodding beneath leaves. You have Trillium vaseyi.
5a. Green sepals hang down below leaves. Anthers curve inward. You have Trillium recurvatum.
5b. Green sepals show above leaves. Anthers erect and straight. Go to step 6.
6a. Petals yellow. You have Trillium luteum.
6b. Petals red or maroon. Go to step 7.
7a. Yellow pollen sacs of anthers face center of flower (botanically described as, anther dehiscence introrse to ovary). You have Trillium sessile.
7b. Yellow pollen sacs of anthers do not face center of flower (botanically described as, an anther dehiscence latrorse to ovary). You have Trillium underwoodii.
Click here for additional Trillium information.
Notes on our Trillium garden: Trillium Notes.
|Trillium Gardening (click to shop)
Book title / Comments
Excellent - a monograph on Trilliums. Complete information about the history, taxonomy, ecology and geographic distribution of Trilliums. Frederick and Roberta Case wrote the definitive book about these plants. Simply titled, "Trilliums", the book is a masterful description of all the species of Trillium, their geographic distribution, habitat, and growing conditions. Published by Timber Press. It is a must have book for the Trillium enthusiast. See our complete review at Amazon.Com
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